Vol.3,No.1,2023-Table of Contents

 

  • Structural responses of FRP sheet piles under cantilever loading
  • Abstract Sheet piles are interlocked segments used for temporary or permanent soil and water retaining structures such as below-grade parking structures and sea walls. Although steel is commonly used due to its strength and ease of manufacturing, it rusts in saltwater. Fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) composite sheet piles are resistant to chlorides and have higher corrosion resistance, but their mechanical properties vary in length and width. Stress risers at corrugation corners make soil-structure interaction a challenging design issue. This research aims to develop a standardized test procedure to determine the resisting moment capacity of FRP composite sheet piles. Cantilevered FRP sheet piles fixed with a sand-concrete mixture of ~70 psi (0.48 MPa) compressive strength were tested under static loads. Strain gages and LVDTs were used to collect data on deformation response up to and beyond peak induced stress. Results suggest that the refined test procedure can assist engineers in designing efficient sheet pile structures and become a basis to develop ASTM standard.… More
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  • Lightweight bamboo structures - Report on 2021 International Collaboration on Bamboo Construction
  • Abstract 2021 International Collaboration on Bamboo Construction was held from September 1 to December 1, 2021. The practice was held by the College of Civil Engineering of Nanjing Forestry University, University College London, International Bamboo and Rattan Organisation (INBAR) and co-organized by 6 international institutions and national companies of China. Two main bamboo structures were setup by the teachers and students in the campus of Nanjing Forestry University. More than 50 students attended the practice, including international students from different countries. The practice was held to deliver the feasibility and applicability of bamboo in various geometries and different spans, and different areas. Innovative technologies like BIM Revit Architecture and Sketchup were used for the design of bamboo structures. The main principle of the practice was that the raising of bamboo structures should be simple using a minimum of materials aside from bamboo. The results of the project contributed to the popularization of the use of bamboo in the architecture, engineering and construction sectors.… More
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  • The effect of including biomass on the rheological and pozzolanic properties of Portland limestone cement- case study
  • Abstract Various investigations have been presented on the possibility of using agro-allied industry waste in concrete, with the goal of achieving a cleaner environment and environmentally friendly construction. Biomass fly ash (BFA) and limestone clinker are waste from steam/power plants and the cement industry, respectively, and are of high relevance to economic and environmental problems. The effect of including biomass on the rheological and pozzolanic properties of Portland limestone cement (PLC) pastes are presented. The BFA was used as partial replacement for PLC as supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs). The rheological properties (yield stress, viscosity and thixotropy) of the cement paste were determined using a parallel-plate rotational rheometer. The pozzolanic properties were determined using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) by measuring the amount of calcium hydroxide (CH), and calcium silicate hydrate (CSH) of the hydrated paste, as well as the reaction kinetics. Different characterization techniques including X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to study the microstructure and mineralogy of the BFA. It was observed that the mineral composition of the biomass fly ash is like class C fly ash. At 15% of cement replacement the paste exhibits better rheological properties: lower yield stress and lower viscosity up till 120 min after mixing, which is an important factor in ready-mix concrete plants. However, a better pozzolanic behavior was observed at 20% cement replacement. From the results obtained, the properties of the paste containing BFA is very sensitive to water/binder ratio (w/b). Above 20% cement replacement, it is suggested to use viscosity modifying agent (VMA) to get a better rheology and pozzolanic behavior.… More
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  • I-shaped ECC/UHPC composite beams reinforced with steel bars and BFRP sheets
  • Abstract This paper proposes a new type of small-sized I-shaped engineered cementitious composite (ECC)/ ultra-high performance concrete (UHPC) composite beam which has the potential to be suitable for corrosive environments. The lower tensile part of the beam was made of ECC material (2/3 of the height), and the top compressive part was made of UHPC material (1/3 of the height). Inner embedded steel bars and surface-bonded basalt fiber reinforced polymer (BFRP) sheets were adopted as the reinforcing materials in combination. A total of nine I-shaped beams were designed and tested under four-point bending test. The influence of parameters such as the ratio of the embedded tensile steel bars, the top UHPC flange, and the surface bonded tensile BFRP sheet on the behavior of the beams was investigated. The results showed that the I-shaped ECC/UHPC composite beams have excellent comprehensive performance, and thanks to the ultra-high durability of the component materials, they have ultra-high durability that ordinary I-steel beams do not have and thus have broad application prospects in corrosive environments. The shear resistance capacity of the thin-walled ECC web needs to be further improved, and UHPC is recommended for the web in the follow-up study.… More
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  • State-of-the-art review on the use of lignocellulosic biomass in cementitious materials
  • Abstract The lignocellulosic biomass wastes cause some burden on the environment; meanwhile, the concrete industry is faced with large amounts of carbon dioxide emissions and raw mineral materials consumption. The use of lignocellulosic biomass wastes in cementitious materials not only provides an alternative to deal with the wastes but also favors the sustainable development of concrete industry. This review first introduces the characteristics of lignocellulosic biomass and then examines its effect on the mechanical properties, shrinkage, cracking, and some other properties of cement composites. Results show that lignocellulosic biomass can be directly used for three purposes: reinforcements, aggregates, and cement replacements. Although the lignocellulosic biomass cannot always enhance the mechanical properties of cementitious materials, it can improve toughness, shrinkage, cracking, heat insulation, etc. Additionally, some concerns with the use of lignocellulosic biomass are summarized, for which some physical and chemical modification methods (heating treatment, boiling treatment, torrefaction treatment, etc.) are identified to change the structure or remove amorphous components of lignocellulose biomass or prevent it from directly contacting cementitious materials. This review can provide some guidance for designing sustainable cementitious materials with lignocellulosic biomass.… More
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